### KVS TGT (WE) Recruitment 2022: Syllabus

#### Part I – Proficiency in Languages (20 marks):

- General English(10 questions)
- Reading comprehension,
- word power,

- Grammar & usage

- General Hindi (10 questions)
- पठन कौशल
- शब्द सामर्थ्य

- व्याकरण

- प्रयुक्ति,

#### Part II – General awareness, Reasoning & Proficiency in Computers (20 marks):

- General Awareness& Current Affairs (10 questions)
- Reasoning Ability (5 questions)
- Computer Literacy(5 questions)

#### Part III – Subject-specific Syllabus (100 marks):

- Circuit Fundamentals

Zero Reference Level – Chassis Ground – Ohm’s Law – Formula Variations of Ohm’s Law – Graphical Representation of Ohm’s Law – Linear Resistor – Non-linear Resistor – Cells in Series and Parallel – Conventional Problems

- Resistive Circuits

Series Circuit – Characteristics of a Series Circuit – The Case of Zero IR Drop – Polarity of IR Drops – Total Power – Series Aiding and Series Opposing Voltages – Proportional Voltage Formula in a Series Circuit Series Voltage Dividers – ‘Opens in a Series Circuit – ‘Shorts’ in e Series Circuit – Parallel Circuits – Laws of Parallel Circuits Special Case of Equal Resistances in all Branches – Special Case of Only Two Branches Any Branch Resistance – Proportional Current Formula – ‘Opens’ in a Parallel Circuit – ‘Shorts’ in a Parallel Circuit – Series-Parallel Circuits Analyzing Series Parallel Circuits – ‘Opens’ in Series-Parallel Circuits ‘Shorts’ in Series Parallel Circuits – Voltage Division in a Complex Series-Parallel Circuit – Conventional Problems

- Kirchhoff’s Laws

General – Kirchhoff Current Law Kirchhoff Voltage Law – Determination of Algebraic Sign – Assumed Direction of Current Flow – Conventional Problems.

- Network Theorems

General – Superposition Theorem – Ideal Constant-Voltage Source – Ideal Constant-current Source – Thevenin’s Theorem – How to Thevenize a Circuit? – Norton’s Theorem – How to Nortonise a Given Circuit – Maximum Power Transfer Theorem – Conventional Problems

- Passive Circuit Elements

General – Resistors – Resistor Types – Wire-wound Resistors – Carbon Composition Resistors – Carbon Film Resistors – Cermet Film Resistors.Metal Film Resistors – Power Rating – Value Tolerance – Variable Resistors – Potentiometers and Rheostats – Fusible Resistors – Resistor Colour Code – Resistance Colour Bands – Resistors under Ten Ohm – Resistor Troubles – Checking Resistors with an Ohmmeter – Inductor – Comparison of Different Cores – Inductance of an Inductor – Another Definition of Inductance – Mutual Inductance – Coefficient of Coupling – Variable Inductors – Inductors in Series or Parallel without M – Series Combination with N – Stray Inductance – Energy Inductance – Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field – DC Resistance of a Coil – Troubles in Coils – Reactance Offered by a Coil – Impedance Offered by a Coil – Q-Factor of a Coil – Capacitors – Capacitor Connected to a Battery –Capacitance-Factors Controlling Capacitance ‘- Types of Capacitors – Fixed Capacitors – Variable Capacitors – Voltage Rating of Capacitors – Stray Circuit Capacitance Leakage Resistance – Capacitors in Series – Two Capacitors in Series Capacitor’s in Parallel – Two Capacitors in Parallel – Energy stored in e Capacitor – Troubles in Capacitors – Checking Capacitors with Ohmmeter – Charging of a Capacitor – Capacitor Connected Across an AC Source Capacitive Reactance

- Energy Sources

Primary and Secondary Cells – Cell and Battery – Voltage and Current of a Cells – Cell life – Different Types of Dry Cells – Carbon Zinc Cell Alkaline Cell – Manganese Alkaline Cell – Nickel Cadmium Cell – Mercury Cell – Silver Oxide Cell – Lead Cells – Battery Rating – Testing Dry Cells – Photoelectric Devices – Photovoltaic Cell – Solar Cell Conventional Problems

- Magnetism and Electromagnetism

Magnetic Materials- Ferrites – Types of Magnets – Demagnetizing or Degaussing -Magnetic Shielding – Magnetic Terms and Units – Ohm’s Law for Magnetic Circuit – Transformer – Transformer Working – Transformer Impedance – Can a Transformer Operate on DC? – RF Shielding – Autotransformer – Impedance Matching – Conventional Problems.

- C. Fundamentals ;

Introduction – Types of Alternating Waveforms – The Basic AC Generator -Some Definitions – Characteristics of a Sine Wave – Audio and,Radio Frequencies – Different Values of Sinusoidal Voltage and Current – Phase of an AC – Phase Difference – Vector Representation of an Alternating Quantity – AC Through Pure Resistance Only • AC Through Pure Inductance Only – AC Through Pure Capacitance Only – Non-sinusoidal Waveforms – Harmonics -Conventional Problems

- Series A.C. Circuits

R-L Circuit – Q Factor of a Coil – Skin Effect – IR•C Circuit – Coupling Capacitor – R-L-C Circuit – Resonance in an R-LC Circuit – Resonance Curve – Main Characteristics of Series Resonance – Bandwidth of a Tuned Circuit – Sharpness of Resonance – Tuning – Tuning Ratio – RaGio Tuning Dial- Parallel Resonance -Convectional Problem The questions will be testing the depth of understanding and application of the concepts at the level of Diploma. 71

- Time Constant

Rise and Fall of Current In pure Resistance – Time: Constant at an R-L Circuit • Circuit Conditions – Inductive Kick – Time Constant of an RC circuit – Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor Decreasing Time Constant – Flasher -: Puke Response of an RC Circuit – Effect of Large and Short Time Constants – Square voltage Wave Applied to Short A. RC Circuit – Square Voltage Wave Applied to Long A,’ E.0 circuit – Conventional Problems

- Timing Circuits and Filters

What-is. is a Tuning Circuit? – Tuned Circuit – Operating Characteristics of a Tuning Circuit – Resonance – Actual Series Resonance – Is it Series or Parallel Resonance? – Tuned Transformers – Double Tuned Transformers – Parallel Circuit – Coupled Circuits – Simple Coupled Circuits – Coefficient of Coupling – Filters Filter Definitions – Types of Filter Circuits – Low-pass Filter – High pass Filter – Bandpass Filter – Band stop Filter – Multisection Filter Circuits – Uses of Fitters – Conventional Problems

- Solid State Physics

Definition of Matter – Crystalline Solids – Unit Cell – arms of Matter – Atom, and Molecule – Atomic Structure – Atomic Number (Z) Atomic mass Number (A) – Electron Orbits or shells – Electron Distribution of Different Atoms Electron Sub orbits or Subshells – Valence Electrons Orbital Energy. – Normal, Excited, and Ionized Atom. – Orbital Energies in hydrogen Atom – Energy Levels in an Isolated At W- Energy Bands in Solids – Bonds in Solids – Valence and Conduction Bands – Conduction in Solids – Hole Formation and its Movement Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators – Types of Semiconductors – Intrinsic Semiconductors Extrinsic Semiconductors – Majority and Minority Charge Carriers – Mobile Charge Carriers and Immobile Torts – Drift Current in Good Conductors Drift Current in Intrinsic Semiconductors – Intrinsic Conduction -Conventional Problems

- The P-N Junction

The P-N Junction – Formation of Depletion Layer Junction or Barrier Voltage (V B) – Effect of Temperature on Barrier Voltage – Forward Biased P-N Junction – Forward VII Characteristics -Reverse Biased P-N Junction – ReMerse Saturation Current (Is or 10) – Reverse V/ I Characteristic Combined Forward and Reverse VII Characteristics – Junction Breakdown – Junction Capacitance

- P-N Junction Diode

P-N Junction Diode – Diode Ratings or Specifications – Diode Testing The Ideal Diode -The Real Diode – Diode Circuits with DC and A Voltage Sources – Diode Fabrication- Grown Junction – Alloy Junction Diffused Junction Epitaxial Junction – Point ContactJunction – Clippers and Campers – Clippers – Some Clipping Circuits – Clampers Summary of Clamping Circuits – Conventional Problems Questions.

- Special Diodes Zener Diode –

Voltage Regulation Zener Diode as Peak Clipper – Meter Protection – Tunneling Effect – Tunnel Diode – Tunnel Diode Oscillator Varactor – PIN Diode – Schottky Diode – Step Recovery Diode Thermistors -Conventional Problems

- Optoelectronic Devices Light Emitting Diode (LED) –

Photoemissive Devices – Photomultiplier Tube – Photovoltaic Devices – Bulk Type Photoconductive Cells – Photodiodes -P-N Junction Photodiode – PIN Photodiode – Avalanche Photodiode

- DC Power Supplies Introduction –

Unregulated Power Supply – Regulated Power Supply Steady and Pulsating DC Voltages – Rectifiers Half-wave Rectifier Full-wave Rectifier – Full-wave Bridge Rectifier – Filters – Series Inductor Filter – Shunt Capacitor Filter – Effect of Increasing Filter Capacitance – LC Filter – The CLC or Pi Filter – Bleeder Resistor – Voltage Regulation Zener Diode Shunt Regulator – Transistor, Series Voltage Regulator – Controlled Transistor Series Regulator – Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator Transistor Current Regulator – Voltage Dividers – Complete Power Supply – Voltage Multipliers – Half-wave Voltage Doubler – Full-wave Voltage Doubler – Voltage Tripler and Quadruple Circuits – Troubleshooting Power Supplies – Controlled Rectification – Output Waveforms for Different Firing Angles – Output Voltage and Current Values in Controlled Rectifiers Average Values for FW Controlled Rectifier – Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) – Pulse Control of SCR – 90° Phas- Control of SCR – 1800 Phase Contr,gi of SCR – SCR Controlled Circuit – U3T Controlled Circuit Conventional Problems

- The Basic Transistor

The Bipolar Junction Transistor – Transistor Biasing -Important Biasing Rule – Transistor Currents – Summing Up – Transistor Circuit Configurations – CB Configuration – CE Configuration -Relations between a and 13 – CC Configuration – Relations between Transistor Currents – Leakage Currents in a Transistor – Thermal Runaway – Conventional Problems 72

- Transistor Characteristics and Approximations

Transistor Static Characteristics – Common Base Test Circuit – Common Base Static – Characteristics – Common Emitter Test Circuit – Common Emitter Static Characteristics – Common Collector Static Characteristics – Different Ways of Drawing ‘Transistor Circuits – Common Base Formulas Common Emitter Formulas – Common Collector Formulas – The Beta Rule – Importance of Vce- Cut-off and Saturation Points – Normal DC Voltage Transistor Indications – Transistor Fault Location – Solving Universal Stabilization Circuit – Notation for Voltages and Currents – Increase / Decrease Notation – Applying AC to a DC Biased Transistor – Transistor AC/DC Analysis -Conventional problems

- Load Lines and DC Bias Circuits

DC Load Line – Q-point and Maximum Undistorted Output – Need for Biasing a Transistor – Factors Affecting Bias Variations – Stability; Factor – Beta Sensitivity – Stability Factor for CB and OF Circuits – Different Methods for Transistor BiaSing – Base Bias – Base Bias with Emitter Feedback – Bate Bias with Collector Feedback – Base Bias with Collector and Emitter Feedbacks – Voltage Divider Bias – Load Line and Output Characteristics – AC Lmid Line – Conventional Problems’

- Transistor Equivalent Circuits and Mode

General DC Equivalent Circuit – AC Equivalent Circuit -Equivalent Circuit of a CB Amplifier -Effect of Source Resistance RS on Voltage Gain – Equivalent circuit of a CE Amplifier – Effect of Source Resistance RS – Equivalent Circuit of a CC Amplifier -Low-frequency Model or Representation – Genera; – T-Model – Formulas for the equivalent of a CB Circuit – Equivalent of a CB Circuit – T-Equivalent of a CE Circuit What are h-parameters? – The h-parameter Formulas for Notation for Transistors – The h-parameters of an Ideal Transistor -, The h-parameters of an Ideal CB Transistor – The h-parameters of an Ideal CE, Transistor – Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuits Typical Values of Transistor h-parameters – Hybrid Formulas for Transistor Amplifier – Approximate Hybrid Formulas -Conventional Problems

- Single- Stage Transistors & Amplifiers

Classification of Amplifiers – Common Base (CB) Amplifier – Various Glans of a CB Amplifier- Characteristics of a CB Amplifier – Characteristics of a CE Amplifier – Common Collector (CC) Amplifier – Various Gains of a CC Amplifier – Characteristics of a CC Amplifier – Uses – Comparison of Amplifier Configurations –Amplifier Classification Based on Biasing Condition – Graphic Representation Class A Amplifiers – Power Distribution in a class A Amplifier – Power Rectangle – Power Efficiency Maximum AC Power in Load – Transformer-coupled, Class A Amplifier Class B Amplifier- Power Relations for Class B Operation – Maximum Values- Class –B Push –Pull Amplifier- Crossover Distortion – Power Efficiency of Push-Pull Amplifiers – Complementary Symmetry Push-Pull Class-B Amplifier – Class C Amplifier- Tuned Amplifier – Distortion in Amplifier – Non-linear Distortion- Intermodulation Distortion- Frequency Distortion – Phase or Delay Distortion – Noise

- Multistage Amplifiers

General ‘- Amplifier Coupling- RC-Coupled Two stage Amplifier – Advantages of RC Coupling } ImpedanceCoupled Two –stage Amplifier- Advantages of Impedance Coupling – Transformer – coupled Two Stage Amplifier – Advantages of Transformer Coupling – Frequency Response – Applications – Direct- coupled Two- stage Amplifier Using Similar Transistors – Direct-coupled Amplifier Using Complementary Symmetry of Two Transistors – Darlington Pair –Advantages of Darlington Pair – Comparison between Darlington Pair and Emitter Follower – Special Features of a Differential Amplifier – Common Model Input – Differential Amplifier – Conventional problems

- Decibels and Frequency Response

The Decibel System – Other Expressions for Power Gain – Voltage and Current Levels – Characteristics of the Decibel System – Value of I dB Zero Decibel Reference Level – Variations In Amplifier Gain with Frequency – Changes in Voltage and Power Levels – Causes of Gain Variation.: Miller Effect – Cut-off Frequencies of Cascaded Amplifiers – Transistor Cut-off Frequencies – Alpha Cut-off Frequency – Beta Cut-off:Frequency – The ft of a Transistor – Relation Between fa,band ft Gain-Bandwidth Product – Conventional Problems

- Feedback Amplifier

Feedback Amplifiers – Principal of Feedback Amplifiers – Advantages of Negative Feedback – Gain Stability – Decreased Distortion- Increased Bandwidth – Forms of Negative Feedback – Shunt- derived Series-fed Voltage Feedback – Current –Series Feedback Amplifier – Voltage-shunt Negative Feedback Amplifier – Current –shunt Negative Feedback Amplifier –Conventional Problems. 73

- Field Effect Transistor

What is a FET? Junction FET (JEFT) – Static Characteristics of a JFET – JFET Drain Characteristic with V GS = 0 –JFET Characteristic with External Bias – Transfer Characteristic – Small Signal JFET Parameters DC Biasing of a JFET –DC Load Line – Common Source JFET Amplifier – JEFF on an IC Chip – Advantages of FETs – MOSFET or IGFET DE MOSFET – Schematic Symbols for a DE MOSFET – Static Characteristics of a DE MOSFET – Enhancement only N-channel MOSFET Tr? riser Characteristic – FETs as Switches – FET Applications – MOS-FET Handling

- Breakdown Devices

What are Breakdown Devices? Uni junction Transistor – UJT Relaxation Oscillator – Silicon Controlled Rectifier – C10° Phase Control – Theft Alarm – Triac -Diac – Silicon Controlled Switch (SCS)

- Sinusoidal Oscillators

What is an Oscillator? – Comparison between an Amplifier and an Oscillator – Classification of Oscillators – Damped and Undamped Oscillations – The Oscillatory Circuit – Frequency of Oscillatory Current – Frequency Stability of an Oscillator – Essentials of a Feedback LC Oscillator – Tuned Base Oscillator – Tuned Collector Oscillator – Tuned Drain Oscillator (FET) – Hartley Oscillator – FET Hartley Oscillator – Colpitts Oscillator – Clapp Oscillator – FETColpitts Oscillator – Crystals – Crystal Controlled Oscillator – Transistor Pierce Crystal Oscillator – FET Pierce Oscillator – Phase Shift Principle – Phase Shift Oscillator – Wien Bridge Oscillator

- Non-sinusoidal Oscillators

Non-sinusoidal Waveforms ‘t-Classification of Non-sinusoidal Oscillators Pulse Definitions – Basic Requirements of a Sawtoo0 Generator -U3T Saw-tooth Generator – Multi vibrators (MV) – Uses of Multi vibrators – Astable Multi vibrator – Mono stable Multi vibrator (MMV) –Bistable Multi vibrator (BMV) – Schmitt Trigger -Transistor Blocking Oscillator

- Modulation and DeModulation

Introduction – What is a Carrier Wave? – Radio Frequency Spectrum Sound – Need for Modulation – Radio Broadcasting – Modulation Methods of Modulation – Amplitude Modulation – Per cent Modulation Upper and Lower Side Frequencies – Upper and Lower Sidebands – Mathematical Analysis of a Modulated Carrier Wave – Power Relations in an AM Wave – Forms of Amplitude Modulation – Generation of SSB – Methods of Amplitude Modulation – Block Diagram of an AM Transmitter – Modulating Amplifier Circuit – Frequency Modulation – Frequency Deviation and Carrier Swing – Modulation Index’-Deviation Ratio – Per cent Modulation – FM Sidebands;- Modulation index and Number of Sidebands – Mathematical Expression for FM Wave – Demodulation or Detection – Essentials of AM Detection – Diode Detector for AM Signals – Transistor Detectors for AM Signals – FM Detection – Quadrature Detector – Frequency Conversion – Super heterodyne AM Receiver – FM Receiver – Comparison between AM and FM – The Four Fields of FM – Conventional Problems

- Integrated Circuits Introduction

What is an Integrated Circuit? – Advantages of ICs – Drawbacks of ICs – Scale of Integration – Classification of ICs by Structure Comparison between Different ICs -Classification of ICs by Function Linear Integrated Circuits (UCs) – Digital Integrated Circuits – IC Terminology – How Monolithic ICs are Made? – le Symbols – Fabrication of IC Components – Complete Monolithic Integrated Circuits – Popular Applications of ICs MOS Integrated Circuits – What is an OP-AMP? OP-AMP Symbol – Polarity Conventions – Ideal Operational Amplifier – Virtual Ground and Summing Point – Why Vi is Reduced to almost Zero? – OP-AMP Applications – Linear Amplifier – Unity Follower – Adder or Summer – Subtractor – Integrator – Differentiator – Comparator

- Number Systems

Number of Systems -The Decimal Number System – Binary System Binary to Decimal Conversion – Binary Fractions – Double-D add Method – Decimal to Binary Conversion – Shifting the Place Point – Binary Operations – Binary Addition – Binary Subtraction – Complement of a Number – 1 is Complemental Subtraction – 2’s Complemental Subtraction – Binary Multiplication – 8i4ry Division – Shifting a Number to Left or Right – Representation of Binary Numbers as Electrical Signals – Octal Number System – Octal to Decimal Conversion – Decimal to Octal Conversion – Binary to Octal Conversion – Octal to Binary Conversion – Advantages of Octal Number System, Hexadecimal Number System – How to Count beyond F in Hex Number System? — Binary to Hexadecimal conversion – Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion – Conventional Problems.

- Logic Gates

Definition – Positive and Negative Logic – The OR Gate – Equivalent Relay Circuit of an OR Gate – Diode OR Gate – Transistor OR Gate OR Gate Symbolizes Logic Addition – Three Input OR Gate – Exclusive OR Gate – The AND Gate – Equivalent Relay Circuit of an AND Gate. Diode AND Gate — Transistor AND Circuit – AND Gate SymbolizesLogic Multiplication – The NOT Gate – Equivalent Circuits for a NOT Gate The NOT Operation ‘ Bubbled Gates The NOR Gate – NOR Gate is a Universal Gate – The NAND Gate – NAND sate is a Universal Gate The XNOR Gate – Logic Gates at a Glance – Adders and Subtractors Half Adder – Full Adder – Parallel Binary Adder -Half Subtractor – Full Subtractor – Conventional Problems 74

- Boolean Algebra

Introduction – Unique Feature of Boolean Algebra – Lay of Boolean Algebra – Equivalent Switching Circuits – De Morgans Theorems – Duals – Conventional Problems

- Logic Families

Main Logic Families Saturated and Non-saturated Logic Circuits – Characteristics of Logic Families – RTL Circuit – DTL Circuit — ‘- TTL Circuits -TTL Subfamilies -ECL Circuit —I2L_ Circuit – MOS Family – PMOS Circuit – NMOS, Circuit – CMOS Circuit

- Transducer

What is a Transducer? – Classification of Transducers • Classification based on Electrical Principle Involved – Resistive Position Transducer – Resistive Pressure Transducer –-;-Inductive pressure Transducer – – Capacitive Pressure Transducer – Self-generating Inductive Transducers – Linear Variable Differential Transformer (.VDT) – Piezoelectric Transducer – Strain Gauge Temperature Transducers – Resistance Temperature Detectors – Thermistor – Thermocouples – Ultrasonic Temperature Transducers – photoelectric Transducers – Various Types of Microphones – Carbon Microphone Ribbon Microphone – Moving-Coil (Me) Microphone – Crystal Microphone – Ceramic Microphone – Capacitor Microphone – The Electret Microphone The Loudspeaker

- Electronic Instruments

Introduction – Analog and Digital Instruments – Function of Instruments – Electronic versus Electrical Instruments – Essentials of an Electronic Instrument – Measurement Standards – The Basic Meter Movement – Characteristics of Moving Coil Meter Movement – Variations of Basic Meter Movement – Converting Basic Meter to DC Ammeter – Multi range Meter – Measurement of Current – Converting Basic Meter to DC Voltmeter Multi range DC Voltmeter – Loading Effect of a Voltmeter – Ohmmeter The Multimeter – Rectifier Ty e AC Meter Electronic Voltmeters – The Direct Current VTVM – Comparison of VOM and VTVM – Direct Current PET VM – Electronic Voltmeter for Alternating Currents – The Digital Voltmeter (DVM) -Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) – Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) – Deflection Sensitivity f a CRT – Normal Operation of a CRO Triggered and Non-triggered Scopes – Dual Trace CRO – Dual Beam CRO – Storage Oscilloscope – Sampling CRO – Digital Readout CRO – Lissajous Figures – Frequency Determination with Lissajous Figures – Applications of a CRO.